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Unemployment stays at 4.6% in December and closes 2012 at an average 5.5%

 

Average unemployment rate in 2012 was 0.5 percentage points lower than in 2011

In 2012, there was an average 1.3 million persons unemployed, 6.1% below the average of 2011 (1.4 million), which represented a reduction by 88 thousand persons in one year. In comparison with results of 2003 (2.6 million), the number of unemployed fell by 48.7%, that is, this reduction reached 1.3 million persons.

The unemployment rate (proportion of unemployed persons in relation to the economically-active population, which is formed by the employed and unemployed) of 2012 (average from January to December) was estimated at 5.5%, 0.5 percentage points below that of 2011 (6.0%). In comparison with 2003, when the rate was estimated at 12.4%, there was decrease of 6.9 percentage points.

The table below shows the evolution of the unemployment rate by year for the total and for each metropolitan area surveyed by PME.

 

 

 

 

Employed population increases by 2.2% from 2011 to 2012

The employed population employed in the group of PME areas in 2012 (average from January to December) was 23 million persons, 2.2% above that of 2011 (22.5 million), with increment of approximately 500 thousand persons. This result caused the proportion of employed persons among those 10 years of age and over (average of 12 months) to rise from 53.7%, in 2011, to 54.2%, in 2012 (versus 50.0% in 2003). In relation to 2003, the employed population increased by 24.0%.

The level of occupation, the statistics which shows the proportion between PO (employed population) and PIA (active-age population), reached its highest percentage in 2012, 54.2%.  Compared with 2003, when this indicator was 50.0%, there was expansion of 4.2 percentage points. The increased level of occupation resulted from the expansion of the employed population at percentages above those of the active-age population. The level of occupation among women (43.0%) remains below that of men (63.7%); however, the increase in relation to 2003 and to 2011 was higher. The survey also shows that, in relation to 2003 the level of occupation increased among youngsters aged 18 to 24 (from 53.8% to 60.8%) and among the black or brown population (from 48.5% to 53.6%).

 

 

The participation of women in the employed population remained virtually unchanged, with increase from 45.4%, in 2011, to 45.6%, in 2012. It is important to highlight that in comparison with 2003 (43.0%), there was significant increase of women's presence in the job market.  

The activity group which recorded the biggest increase of participation in the employed population (from 13.4% in 2003 to 16.2% in 2012) was Services rendered to enterprises, rents, real estate activities and financial mediation (increase of 2.7 percentage points).

Workers with a signed record card make up 49.2% of the employed population

In year 2012, 11.3 million workers were workers with a record card signed in the private sector  The percentage of workers with a signed record card in relation to the overall number of employed persons changed from 48.5% to 49.2% in 2012 (in 2003 they were 39.7%).

The study shows there was increase of 5.4 million in the number of workers as social security contributors. As a result, the percentage of employed persons who also contributed to social security recorded increase, and reached 72.8%, 1.8 percentage points more than in 2011. In 2003, the percentage of contributors in the employed population was 61.2%.  

 

 

Persons aged 50 and over make up 22.5% of the employed population

From 2011 to 2012, the proportion of persons aged 50 and over in the active-age population increased from 30.1% to 30.9%.  Their presence in the labor market as employed persons changed from 22.0% to 22.5%. In 2003, this group represented 16.7% of the employed population.

Workers with 11 or more years of schooling make up 62.2% of the employed population

From 2011 to 2012, the level of schooling of the population 10 years of age and over recorded increase. The proportion of persons with 11 or more years of schooling increased by 1.4 percentage points (from 45.8% in 2011, to 47.2%, in 2012). In 2003 this percentage was 34.3% (from 2003 to 2012 it increased by 12.9 percentage points). Among the workers the expansion of the population with 11 or more years of schooling was also observed: it changed from 60.7% to 62.2%.  From 2003 to 2012, the prorportion of persons with 11 or more years of schooling increased by 15.5 percentage points (from 46.7% to 62.2%). There was also increase of the number of workers with complete higher education. In 2003 they represented 13.8%; in 2012 this estimate was close to 1/5 of the employed population (19.6%).

In 2012, the employed persons worked, on the average, 40.3 hours a week, effectively, versus 41.3 hours in 2003. São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro (both with 40.6 hours) had working hours above the average of the six metropolitan areas surveyed.

Average income from work increases, but differences remain

In 2012, the annual average of the average monthly income usually earned in the main job was estimated at R$ 1,793.96, the highest since 2003, corresponding to increase of 4.1% over 2011. Between 2003 and 2012, the purchasing power of income from work rose 27.2% (in 2003 it was R$ 1,409.84).

 

 

The estimated unemployment rate in December 2012 was 4.6%, the lowest rate in this time series of the Monthly Employment Survey (PME), which started in May 2002. There was decrease of 0.3 percentage points over the November result (4.9%) and stability in relation to December 2011 (4.7%).  

 

With this result, on the average of 12 months in 2012, the unemployment rate was 5.5%, also the lowest annual average, and below the 0.5 percentage points observed in 2011 (6.0%) and 6.9 percentage points below the average of 2003 (12.4%).

 

The unemployed population in December 2012 (1.1 million persons) fell by 0.6% in comparison with the November figure (with decrease by 72 thousand persons) and remained stable versus December 2011. In 2012, the unemployed made up, on the average, 1.3 million persons, 6.1% less than in 2011 (1.4 million), which represented decrease by 88 thousand unemployed in one year. In a comparison with results of 2003 (2.6 million), the number of unemployed fell by 48.7%, that is, reduction affected 1.3 million persons in this period.

 

The employed population (23.4 million) remained stable in comparison with November and represented increase of 3.1% over December 2011. That means a total 703 thousand employed persons more in a 12-month period. Considering the average of 2012, employed persons amounted to 23 million, being 2.2% and 24% above the figures recorded in 2011 (22.5 million) and 2003, respectively.

 

The number of workers with a record card signed in the private sector (11.6 million) increased by 1.3% in comparison with the November figure, and by 3.6% versus December 2011. That represented an increment of 408 thousand job posts with a signed record card in a period of one year. These results led, on the average of 2012, to a record proportion of workers with a signed record card (10.9 million) in relation to the overall number of employed persons: 49.2% , versus 48.5% in 2011 and 39.7% in 2003.

 

The average income earned by the employed population (R% 1,805.00) fell by 0.9% in comparison with November. There was decrease of 3.2% versus December 2011. The annual average monthly income usually earned from the main job was estimated at R$ 1.793,96, which corresponded to increase of 4.1% in relation to 2011. Between 2003 and 2012, the purchasing power of income from work increased by 27.2%.

 

The household income per capita rose by 5.2% from 2011 to 2012 (R$1,211.33). The increase from 2003 to 2012 reached 42.6%.

 

The real income usually earned (R$ 42.7 billion) recorded decrease of 1.0% versus that of November. Versus December 2011, income increased by 6.5%. The real income of the employed population (R$ 46.2 billion), estimated in November 2012, rose 7.3% in the month and 6.7% in the year.

 

The volume of income usually earned (annual average) estimated, for 2012, at R$ 41.5 billion, in the six metropolitan areas, resulted in increase of 6.2% in relation to 2011 and 57.0% in comparison with 2003.

 

The Monthly Employment Survey is conducted in the metropolitan areas of Recife, Salvador, Belo Horizonte, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo and Porto Alegre. The complete publication is available at www.ibge.gov.br/english/estatistica/indicadores/trabalhoerendimento/pme_nova/

 

The complete publication for the Employment Market Review - 2003-2012 is available at http://www.ibge.gov.br/home/estatistica/indicadores/trabalhoerendimento/pme_nova/retrospectiva2003_2012.pdf

 

 

 

The survey also presented disparities between the income earned by men and women, and also by whites and blacks or browns.  In 2012, on the average, women made about 72.7% of the income earned by men (R$ 1,489.01 versus R$ 2,048.34). The lowest proportion was that of 2007, 70.5%.

 

The income received by black or brown workers, between 2003 and 2012, recorded increase of 46.0%, whereas that of white workers increased by 26.0%. But the survey also showed that black or brown workers made, on the average, in 2012, little more than half (56.1%) of the income earned by white ones. The annual averages were R$ 1,255.92 for black or brown workers, whereas that of white workers was R$ 2,237.14. In 2011, this ration was 54.2%.  It is important to mention that, in 2003, this figure did not reach even half of that figure (48.4%).  

From 2011 to 2012, income increased was recorded for all types of insertion in the market: self-employed workers (6.7%); workers with a record card signed in the private sector (3.4%); military and statutory civil servants (2.7%) and workers without a record card signed in the private sector (2.6%). Concerning employers, there was decrease of 1.2%.

The same occurred in the activity groups; all of them registered gains in the purchasing power of income from work. In percentage terms, the groups with the biggest increases were those with the highest income.  In the period 2011-2012, there was increase of income in the groups:  Domestic services, 7.6%; Construction, 4.6%, Other services, 3.8%; Industry, 3.6%;  Services rendered to enterprises, 3.5%, Education and health, 3.4%.

In Domestic services, in the comparison 2003-2012, there was the biggest increase among the groups, 53.2%. Also in relation to 2003, another highlight was construction, formed mostly by masons, a group recording increase of 43.5% in this period.

Household income per capita increased by 5.2% from 2011 (R$ 1,085.66) to 2012 (R$ 1,211.33). From 2003 to 2012, that increase reached 42.6%.   

 

 

The volume of income usually earned (annual average) estimated for 2012 at R$ 41.5 billion, in the six metropolitan areas, resulted in increase of 6.2% in relation to 2011. In comparison with 2003, that increase reached 57.0%.  

 

 

By area, in comparison with November 2012, the unemployment rate remained stable in all the areas.  In comparison with December 2011, the rate fell in Salvador (2.0 percentage points) and in Rio de Janeiro (0.9 percentage points), recorded increase in Recife (0.9 percentage points) and did not change in the other areas.  It is worth mentioning that in the metropolitan areas of Salvador (5.7%), Belo Horizonte (3.5%), Rio de Janeiro (4.0%) and Porto Alegre (3.0%), the rate reached, in December 2012, its lowest value in the series.   

 

 

The number of unemployed, estimated at 1.1 million persons in the group of six areas surveyed, did not record changes in any of the areas in terms of monthly comparison.  As for December 2011, there was increase in the metropolitan area of Recife (24.7%) and decline in Salvador (25.2%) and in Rio de Janeiro (17.0%).

For the employed population (23.4 million persons), in the group of six metropolitan areas, in the analysis by group of economic activity from November to December 2012, there was change only in Construction (decline of 3.4%) and Trade, repair of automotive vehicles and of personal and domestic objects and retail trade of fuels (increase of 3.3%). In relation to December 2011, three groups recorded decrease: Trade, repair of automotive vehicles and of personal and domestic objects and retail trade of fuels (6.2%); Education, health, public administration (6.0%) and Other services (4.6%). 

The level of occupation, estimated at 55.1% in December 2012, for the total of six areas, did not record change over last November and increased by 1.1 percentage point in relation to December 2011. By area, in the monthly comparison, this indicator did not record any change. Compared to December 2011, three areas recorded increases: Recife and Rio de Janeiro (1.2 percentage points) and São Paulo (1.3 percentage points).  

The average real income usually earned by workers, in the regional analysis, in relation to November 2012, recorded increase in the metropolitan area of Salvador (2.8%). It fell in Recife (2.4%), São Paulo (1.7%), Belo Horizonte (1.1%), Rio de Janeiro (0.6%) and recorded no change in Porto Alegre. Compared to December 2011, income recorded a hike in Recife (7.9%), Belo Horizonte (6.8%), Rio de Janeiro (1.9%), São Paulo (3.7%), Porto Alegre (4.6%) and fell in Salvador (-4.5%).  

 

In the monthly analysis of the average real income usually earned by activity group, there was gain in Mining and quarrying industry, manufacturing industry and distribution of electricity, gas and water (1.5%) and Domestic services (1.5%). There was decrease of Construction (-2.3%), Trade, repair of automotive vehicles and of personal and domestic objects and retail trade of fuels (-1.3%), Services rendered to enterprises, rents, real estate activities and financial mediation (-0.6%), Education, health, social services, public administration, defense and social security (-0.2%) and Other services (-3.4%). Compared with December 2011, there was gain in Mining and quarrying industry, manufacturing industry and distribution of electricity, gas and water (2.2%), Trade, repair of automotive vehicles and of personal and domestic objects and retail trade of fuels (5.8%), Services rendered to enterprises, rents, real estate activities and financial mediation (6.4%), Education, health, social services, public administration, defense and social security (2.2%) and (6.7%), versus decrease in Construction (-0.6%) and Other services (-1.5%).

 

Compared with December 2011, there were increases in all the employment categories: workers with a record card signed in the private sector (1.9%), workers without a record card signed in the private sector (11.5%) military and statutory civil servants (4.6%), own-account workers (2.6%).  

In relation to November, the real household income per capita of the employed population (R$ 1,231.94) increased by 0.9%. There was a 5.0% increase versus the December 2011 figure. The table below shows the figures and changes of this indicator for the six metropolitan areas surveyed by PME.

 

 

In terms of employment type, in relation to November, there was increase in workers with a record card signed in the private sector (2.6%) and military and civil servants (2.1%). There was decrease in workers with an employment record card signed in the private sector (-0.3%) and self-employed workers (-1.3%).

 


Social Communication
January 31, 2013


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