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Between 2008 and 2011, more than half of jobs were generated by High-Growth Enterprises

In this period, those enterprises generated more than 3.2 million job posts, or 56.0% of the employment created by enterprises with one or more salaried persons. In 2011, even though representing just 1.5% of the enterprises with at least one salaried employed person, organic High-Growth Enterprises (organic HGE) were responsible for almost half (48.5%) of the salaried jobs. Those enterprises were on average 13.7 years old and, most of them had between 10 and 49 salaried employees. From 2008 to 2011, the number of salaried employed persons in the HGE increased, on average, 175.5%. The economic activity with the highest percentage (12.6%) of organic High-Growth Enterprises was Construction. Regionally, the proportion of local units of organic high-growth enterprises in the North and Northeast was greater than in the other Regions. Besides, almost 60% of the local units of organic High-Growth Enterprises were in the Metropolitan Areas. These data are part of the survey Statistics of Entrepreneurship 2011, carried out by IBGE in partnership with  Endeavor Brasil. The complete publication can be accessed at http://www.ibge.gov.br/home/estatistica/economia/empreendedorismo/2011/default.shtm

In 2011, Brazil had 34 528 High-Growth Enterprises (HGE), which employed 5.0 million salaried persons and paid R$ 95.4 billion in wages and other remuneration. In relation to 2010, there were highs of 3.6% in the number of such enterprises, of 0.8% in the salaried employed persons and 8.1% (nominal values) in wages and other compensation paid by them. Conversely, the scope of organic high-growth enterprises amounted to 34 106 enterprises, which together employed 4.4 million salaried persons, paying R$ 75.8 billion in wages and other compensation. Table 3 shows the main characteristics of those enterprises.

 

According to the Statistics of Entrepreneurship carried out by IBGE, an enterprise is considered asHigh-Growth (HGE) when it has 10 or more salaried persons in the year of observation and its salaried employed persons grew at least 20% in the three previous years. An enterprise is considered as organic High-Growth (organic HGE) if, under the same conditions, the rise in the number of its salaried persons is due to new hirings in the observation period, whereas an External High-Growth Enterprise (External HGC) owes the high-growth of its salaried employed persons to structural changes (mergers or take-overs). Thus, total High-Growth Enterprises (total HGE) represent the sum of organic HGE and external HGE. Between 2008 and 2011, the HGE (High-Growth Enterprises) increased their salaried personnel by rates close to 170%, as shown in table 4.

In 2011, more than half of the jobs were generated by HGEs

Between 2008 and 2011, 3.2 million of salaried jobs were created by HGE, or 56.0% of the total generated by the enterprises with one or more salaried persons and 66.8% of the posts created by enterprises with 10 or more salaried persons.

The organic high-growth enterprises, however, generated 2.8 million salaried jobs, 86.6% of the job posts created by the HGE, 48.5% of the total jobs created by enterprises with salaried persons and 57.9% of the job posts created by enterprises with 10 or more salaried employed persons.

In 2009, 2010 e 2011, more than half of  total high-growth enterprises and of organic high-growth enterprises had 10 to 49 salaried employed persons.  Among the organic high-growth enterprises, those with 10 to 49 salaried employed persons gained contribution (51.5% to 52.0%) and the largest ones lost it (39.3% to 38.9% of the enterprises with 50 to 249 salaried employed persons and 9.2% to 9.1% of those with more than 250 salaried employed persons) between 2010 and 2011.

In that same period, the average age of the total and organic high-growth enterprises rose from 13.6 to 13.8 years in the total high-growth enterprises and from 13.5 to 13.7 in the organic high-growth enterprises. In 2011, 80.0% of the total and 80.2% of the organic high-growth enterprises were 20 years old.

37.4% of the HGEs were gazelles with eight years of existance

The other two categories investigated by the Statistics of the Entrepreneurship are the Gazelles 8 (total or organic high-growth aged up to eight in the end of the observation period) and the Gazelles 5 (total or organic high-growth aged up to five in the end of the observation period). Table 9 summarizes the situation of those two categories:

12.6% of Construction enterprises were organic High-Growth 

From 2010 to 2011, there was a 0.2 pp reduction in the representativeness of the organic HGE in the total of active enterprises with 10 or more salaried persons: from 7.8% to 7.6%. The most representative activity, in 2011, was Construction (12.6%), followed by Services (8.1%) and Industry (8%). Conversely, Trade was the sector with the lowest representativeness in 2011, 6.1%.

As to the distribution of the HGE in 2011, the three major sections were: Wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles (26,8%), Manufacturing Industries (23.2%) and Construction (13%). Those same three sections were the main ones in the number of enterprises, in 2010 and 2009. Out of those, Wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles gained contribution (0.2 pp) between 2010 and 2011. The sector of Manufacturing Industries shrank 1.3 pp in relation to 2010 and 1.8 pp in relation to 2009.

Employment boosts in HGEs of Manufacturing Industries

In 2011, the sections with the greatest representativeness in the total of the organic HGE were also the ones with the majority of the salaried employed persons: Manufacturing Industries (21.6%);  Administrative and support service activities (18.5%);  Wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles (17.8%); Construction(17.7%) and Transportation, storage and mail (7.6%).

In 2011, despite representing just 1.5% of the enterprises with at least one salaried employee, organic high-growth enterprises were responsible for 48.5% of the salaried jobs created. The sections of activities that employed the most were Manufacturing Industries (577.5 thousand), Administrative and support service activities (542.2 thousand), Construction (516.9 thousand), Wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles (471.1 thousand) and Transportation, storage and mail (211.8 thousand).

Organic HGEs concentrate 11.5% of the value added of the active enterprises

In 2011, active enterprises with at least one salaried employee generated R$ 1 755 billion in gross value added and active enterprises with 10 or more salaried employed persons generated R$ 1 503 billion in gross value added. On the other hand, organic High-Growth Enterprises were responsible for the generation of R$ 202 billion, which represents 13.4% of the gross value added by the total of active enterprises with 10 or more salaried employed persons and 11.5% of the gross value added by the total of active enterprises with one or more salaried employees.

 

On average, organic HGE has 13.7 years of existence

In 2011, the average age of the total number of organic high-growth enterprises was 13.7. The sector with the highest average age, 26.6 years, was Public administration and defense; compulsory social security. In contrast, the sector with the lowest average age was Administrative and support service activities, with 11.0 years.

Between 2010 and 2011, there was a modest increase in the average age of the organic HGE: from 13.6 to 13.7. The average ages of each section in 2011 were very similar to the ones found in 2010, as well as the ranking of sections of activity by age. 

Contribution of women in HGEs is smaller than in other enterprises

In 2011, 32.7% of the salaried personnel in organic High-Growth Enterprises were women, but this female participation was below that of the active enterprises with 10 or more salaried persons (34.9%). The highlights were Human health and social work activities (73.8%) and Education (64.5%). In contrast, the sector with the lowest number of women-employees are: Agriculture, forestry and fishing (15.8%), Mining and quarrying industries (11.3%) and Construction (7.6%).

Around 8.4% of the salaried persons in the organic high-growth enterprises had complete higher education, a percentage below that of the enterprises with 10 or more salaried persons (11%).

HGE's average productivity is lower than other enterprises'

In 2011, average work productivity [1] of an organic High-Growth Enterprise (HGE) was 19.7% lower than that of an enterprise with 10 or more salaried persons (R$ 50 149 against R$ 62 432 of value added per salaried persons).

In relation to the active enterprises with one or more salaried persons, the organic HGE had, in 2011, a 23% lower productivity (R$ 50 149 against R$ 61 672 of value added per employed persons).

5.6% of HGEs have continuously grown since 2008

In 2011, there were 1 931 enterprises that, since 2008, first year of observation, have kept an annual growth of salaried employees above 20%. Considered continuous High-Growth Enterprises, they employed 976.7 million salaried persons and paid R$ 2.2 billion in wages and other compensation. That means that, even though representing just 5.6% of all HGE, they were responsible for 19.4% of the jobs and for 23.0% of the wages of the same HGE. Besides, the average monthly wages paid (3.2 minimum wages) was above the average of the HGE (2.7 minimum wages).

22 Metropolitan Areas concentrated more than a third of HGE

In 2011, there were 34 106 organic high-growth enterprises, which had 70 605 branches, 24 561 single branches and 34 106 headquarters. The publication brings a distributional analysis of those units according to Major Regions, the 27 Federation Units and Metropolitan Areas. São Paulo concentrated 30% of the total of the branches and 31.2% of salaried employed persons of organic High-Growth Enterprises.

However, São Paulo and the Southeast recorded a low representativeness of branches of organic High-Growth Enterprises among enterprises with 10 or more salaried personnel, both in number of branches and salaried persons. On the other hand, North and Northeast Regions registered the greatest proportions of branches of High-Growth: in both regions, 11% of the branches of active enterprises with 10 or more salaried persons were High-Growth, whereas in the Southeast Region, the proportion was 9%.

In 2011, the Metropolitan Areas concentrated 59.0% of the total of the branches of organic High-Growth Enterprises. The Metropolitan Areas encompassing capitals[2] were more representative, since they concentrated 49.4% of the total of the branches of the organic HGE. Besides, more than one third (34.8%) of the branches were in capitals belonging to 22 Metropolitan Areas.



[1] The analyses in this publication refer to the ratio of the gross value added at current prices and the total of salaried persons.

[2] The capitals of the states of Acre, Rondônia, Roraima, Tocantins and Mato Grosso do Sul do not belong to any Metropolitan Areas and, therefore, are not included in this calculation.


 


Social Communication
November 18, 2013


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